Tuning a car increases power output, handling, and speed. The original meaning of tuning is adjusting an engine. This is so that a vehicle runs smooth and efficient. Performing any of the following upgrades can change how your car behaves. It is important to to have these elements balanced.
Intake and exhaust
There is one important thing you should remember when increasing intake efficiency. That is to remove anything that could restrict and guide air into the engine. The stock air cleaner reduces intake noise. It also prevents a long period of use under different conditions to block the filter. This makes the stock air intake system very inefficient.
The basics of exhaust tuning lies in the increase of exhaust efficiency. But it is not true that the least resistance leads to the highest efficiency. Removing the muffler reduces exhaust resistance. But engine torque is also reduced. This affects launch and acceleration. It is important to have the perfect amount of exhaust back pressure or resistance. It is possible to change the engine characteristics in exhaust manifolds. This is with the shape, joins, and lengths of the manifold. The exhaust system plays a vital role in the exhaust emissions. As well as the sound levels of the car. Stock mufflers have tight bends and crushed areas. This is to reduce production cost and because of layout reasons. The emphasis is to reduce sound levels and gain torque at the lowest engine speeds. Sports mufflers have smoother bends. This increases the efficiency of the exhaust system. Each car has a system tuned. This is why sports cars can have efficient power all through the rev range. And sedan and wagon cars have more emphasis on producing torque. Turbos use exhaust energy to produce power. It becomes a resistance in the exhaust system.
Compressed air forced into the engine can produce large amounts of power from the engine. There are different options available. Such as increasing boost to replacing the supercharger for one of larger volume. This is unique to Supercharged or Turbocharged tuning.
The energy from the engine exhaust gasses turn the blades. A compressor attached on the same axis turns with it. This compresses air and forces it into the engine. This allows for higher outputs gained from the engine. The amount of air pressure forced into the engine is usually referred to as boost pressure. Controlling the amount of exhaust gas which passes through the turbo can adjust this. The use of a bypass valve performs this. This is between the engine and turbo. It can release the exhaust gas without flowing through the turbo. The compressor pressure activates this.
This is the control of the amount of fuel injected into the engine. This is according to the amount of air present in the system. A computer controls this. It forms the basis of what is often referred to as engine management or ECU tuning or mapping.
An approximate of g of air is important for every 1g of fuel. This is to burn fuel completely and called stoichiometric air fuel ratio. In practice, an engine’s air fuel ratio is richer in fuel than the stoichiometric ratio. This is because of conditions like the atomisation of fuel. As well as the cooling effect that the fuel has on the engine. An air fuel gauge measures the ratio. A lot of stock control systems use an O2 sensor to make adjustments. The cars on board computer measures the amount of air that the engine draws in using an air flow meter. It calculates the amount of fuel needed. A boost up changes the amount of air. Then there will be fuelling change.
A strong spark for good quality ignition is important for complete combustion. Changing the spark plugs is the first step in tuning the ignition system. Power and the amount of heat generated increases. Then it becomes necessary to increase the heat range value of the plug. Timing through ECU tuning is effective as well.
Any car with upgraded engine tuning will be faster than stock performance cars. Do not use substandard equipment. Always use after-market and non-OEM parts. Always have a qualified techs do it. Doing it yourself is often a bad idea. Contact tuning specialists at HPF if you need help.